We thank L. McHale for reviewing and commenting on the section on disease resistance genes. This project was supported by a startup fund from Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University to R.M., the International Consortium for Sugarcane Biotechnology (project #35, R.M.), the US Department of Energy (DOE; DE-SC0010686 to R.M.), the European Bioinformatics Institute (BP2012OO2J17 to R.M.), the US National Science Foundation Plant Genome Research Program (grant IOS-1025976 to D.M.B.), the 863 program (2013AA102604 to J.Z.), the Natural Science Foundation of China (31201260 to J.Z.), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Fujian Province (J.Z.), and the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP; grants 2008/52146-0, 2012/51062-3 and 2014/50921-8 to G.M.S. and 2008/52074-8 to M.-A.V.S.). This work was funded in part by the DOE Center for Advanced Bioenergy and Bioproducts Innovation (US DOE, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research under Award Number DE-SC 18420 to M.H. and L.-Q.C.).